While you can't prevent a strike, there's a lot you can do to mitigate — or even prevent — damage.
The recent advances in electrical and electronic systems have revolutionized recreational boating. Vessel operations have been simplified and the boating experience enhanced due to the integration of electronics into almost every onboard system, from navigation and communications to propulsion and maneuvering. Complex engine electronics known by various names including Engine Control Unit (ECU) and Engine Control Module (ECM) have increased performance and reduced emissions on modern engines. However, these advances have come at a cost. Many 21st-century boaters depend on electronic systems to navigate and maneuver their boats, and many modern engines will not function if their electronics are compromised. That makes modern mariners and their boats vulnerable to a lightning strike that damages these now mission-critical systems, potentially leaving the boat dead in the water without navigation or communications equipment.
Unfortunately, sensitive electronics on boats have become increasingly vulnerable to lightning strikes, yet lightning-protection systems have not kept pace. It's not that there haven't been significant advances in lightning science since Benjamin Franklin developed his theories on how to protect barns and livestock. The National Fire Protection Association, Underwriters Laboratories, and industries which are significantly at risk from lightning, such as telecommunications, wind generation, aviation, and fuel, have achieved consensus on the science of lightning protection and have embraced new protocols and practices. But the recreational boating industry has been slow to adapt those changes to the marine environment. There are at least three reasons for that.
First, corrosion and motion on board boats, as well as limitations with respect to weight, space, and geometry, make lightning protection more challenging than in shoreside installations. Second, the mandate of the standards body for the industry, the American Boat & Yacht Council (ABYC), focuses on protecting life; protecting equipment has been a lower priority. Third, there has been strong disagreement between professionals about the best way to mitigate damage in a lightning strike and precious little data to support one point of view over another. The sometimes-raucous debate surrounding certain unproven lightning- protection devices and such theories as "fuzzy" lightning dissipation terminals and early-streamer emission terminals, as well as unorthodox placement of grounding terminals (a.k.a. grounding plates), have sharply divided the recreational boating technical community, all of which makes consensus on lightning protection difficult, if not impossible.
This lack of guidance is frustrating for those with boats at risk. While a runabout in Portland, Oregon, or a daysailer in Portland, Maine, may have little risk of lightning damage (see "Striking Lightning Facts"), larger vessels (particularly sailboats) in such lightning-prone areas as the Chesapeake Bay or Florida absolutely should be protected using the best technology available. Any marine-insurance adjuster can attest that the potential for loss on these vessels can be great. The National Fire Protection Association made some fundamental changes to the watercraft chapter of NFPA 780: Standard for the Installation of Lightning Protection Systems in 2008 that incorporate the thinking that has become accepted in other industries. While the recommendations in NFPA 780 have yet to be embraced by the recreational boating industry as a whole, understanding what it says — and why — may assist you in developing a lightning-protection plan for your boat.
The simplest way to think of a lightning strike would be as a short circuit between the cloud and the earth. The earth and an active thundercloud have either a positive or a negative polarity with respect to each other, just like battery connections that can arc if they are not separated by a long enough air gap. Whether the positive charge is in the cloud or on the water may have great importance to a physicist, but matters little to the cow in the barn or the VHF radio antenna on the mast.
The important point is that the earth (or in our case, the water) contains an unlimited supply of positive and negative charges; it is the thundercloud that induces the charge concentration in the water. For example, if a large concentration of negative charge coalesces in a storm cloud over the ocean, a large concentration of positive charge is drawn to the very top surface of the water directly beneath it. (Opposites attract.) Since air is a good insulator, no electricity will flow between the cloud and the water unless the airborne charge loses altitude, moves close enough to the surface of the water, and the lightning jumps the gap. If an electrically conductive material, such as an aluminum tuna tower or mast, stainless steel rigging, or a long vertical copper wire, comes between the cloud and the water, then the gap that must be jumped becomes shorter. The boat short circuits the voltage, much like a wrench across battery terminals.
Because boats are built from electrically conductive components installed between the water and the areas aloft (masts, rigging, antennas, towers, support structures, electrical wiring), a lightning strike is inevitable if an active thundercloud containing electrical charges passes overhead at a low enough altitude. How much damage the lightning strike does to the boat depends upon how easily the electrical energy from the strike can find its way through the boat to ground. There will be a lot less damage if the discharge is contained in a well-designed lightning-protection system than if it takes a detour through the ship's wiring and sensitive electronics on its way out of the boat.
This is a basic concept that surprises many boaters: A lightning-protection system is not designed to prevent a lightning strike, but rather to provide a safe discharge path for the lightning. This is the only viable solution for lightning protection (short of going back to wooden ships, kerosene lamps, and sextants). The technology to prevent lightning strikes does not yet exist.
Still, there are devices out there claiming to do just that. Lightning dissipaters (LDs) look like metal bottle brushes or frayed paint brushes and are installed on the top of the mast. The hypothesis is that the numerous conductive points on the LDs safely dissipate accumulated charges so the lightning strike will not occur. As far as I am aware, not a single independent testing laboratory has confirmed the effectiveness of lightning dissipaters as lightning preventers.
Early-streamer emission (ESE) terminals have also gained traction in some circles. Fancy lightning rods often shaped like a torpedo that usually come with electronic circuitry, these are supposed to attract lightning better than a standard lightning rod (also called an air terminal), to ensure that the lightning strikes the grounding path rather than what is being protected. Once again, I am not aware of any independent studies validating the effectiveness of these devices.
Lightning-protection systems actually function by acting as the "best" short circuit between the cloud and the water, one designed to lead the lightning harmlessly to ground. The system accomplishes this in two ways: by attracting lightning away from more destructive pathways between cloud and ground, and by sending the charge around, instead of through, what it is protecting.
The first concept has traditionally been known as the "cone of protection" or the area protected by an air terminal from a strike. Traditionally, the cone of protection has been thought to include a circle centered on the base of the air terminal whose radius equals the height of the terminal and to extend from the top of the air terminal to the ground at a 45 degree angle. In fact, the length of the final jump that lightning takes before striking the air terminal is about 30 meters. Recent research suggests that the actual area protected can be defined by an imaginary sphere with this radius that is "rolled" up to the air terminal. All objects inside the imaginary sphere will not be protected by the air terminal, which means the area protected often differs in size and shape from the cone of protection model. Modern lightning protection for airports and power plants use the rolling sphere method and place air terminals so that the areas of protection overlap and include any sensitive equipment that would be damaged by a strike.
The second concept will be familiar to many as the Faraday cage. As early as 1836, Michael Faraday discovered that objects surrounded by metal were protected from lightning (explaining why we are safe from lightning while in our cars). Many old-school sailors have used Faraday's discovery to good purpose when they placed sensitive electronics in the oven during a lightning storm (with the oven off, of course.) This practice can be significantly updated by placing sensitive electronics in the microwave oven!
21st Century Lightning Protection
Benjamin Franklin pioneered lightning protection in 1749 with the invention of the lightning rod, and, when it comes to recreational boats, until recently, little has changed. Under his model, the lightning is attracted to the lightning rod (air terminal), which then passes the lightning current harmlessly to a submerged metaevent secondary flashes from these metal structures.
NFPA 780 draws much from the old-school system while incorporating improvements based on the modern understanding of lighting protection. While solutions will vary depending on the boat, let's talk about the basics.
Air terminals (lightning rod or Franklin rod) should be installed at the highest points of masts, towers, etc. On a sailboat a single air terminal could be bolted to the mast; on a sportfish it could be bolted to the tower and made to look like an antenna. This should be higher than anything you are trying to protect from a lightning strike, such as a VHF antenna.
A heavy electrical conductor should be connected from each air terminal directly down to a grounding point on the hull. In the case of a sailboat's mast, aluminum is a good conductor, so no separate wiring run needs to be installed. (Note that the wiring inside of the mast will be protected due to the Faraday effect.) An aluminum tower will work the same way on a sportfish so long as the legs are connected to an adequate grounding plate. Where no aluminum structure exists to act as a down conductor, a 4 AWG wire or larger should be run from the air terminal to the grounding plate in as straight a run as possible and well separated from other wiring.
The grounding point should be a corrosion-resistant metal plate installed on the exterior of the hull below the waterline. The plate should be at least one square foot in size and at least 3/16 of an inch thick. Research shows that most of the electrical discharge occurs along the edges, so a long, narrow plate, especially one with grooves cut in it, will be most effective at dispersing the charge. A new major point of contention is where to install the grounding plate, or plates. Some research indicates that a location at or near the waterline is by far the most effective solution. On a sailboat, the lead keel can be used as the grounding plate if the keel is not fiberglass-encapsulated or covered in fairing. If the mast is solidly keel stepped, there would be no need for a separate conductor from the mast to the keel. Metal rudders or propeller struts are also acceptable as grounding plates.
Surge-protective devices (SPD) or transient voltage surge suppressors (TVSS) should be installed on all equipment that's mission critical, expensive, difficult to replace, and/or prone to lightning damage. Examples include the ECU/ECM, alarm systems, chartplotters, and instruments.
TVSSs are the most exciting development in the field of lightning protection. These semiconductor devices provide protection by suppressing lightning-related voltage spikes. They are widely used in the telecommunications, wind generation, and avionics industries.
TVSSs are connected across the input terminals supplying voltage to a piece of equipment; they can be thought of as fuses that react to voltage instead of current. The TVSS is an open circuit as long as the supply voltage feeding the equipment is in the normal range. However, if a lightning strike causes a momentary voltage spike and puts, say 1,000 volts on a 120-volt device, the TVSS will "clamp" or short circuit 880 volts and convert it to heat. The excessive heat could, and probably would, damage the TVSS; but destroying a $250 surge arrestor to protect a $5,000 engine controller is good engineering.
Voltage surge protection would be prudent for engine controls, navigation systems, steering systems, and shorepower systems. TVSSs come in many voltage ratings, energy ratings, response times, and so on. Some are designed to protect whole distribution systems, while others are suitable for individual equipment protection only. A well-designed system includes cascaded protection, with extra protection on mission-critical and lightning-prone equipment, such as main engines and shorepower systems. The key to a reliable and cost-effective system is to ensure that appropriately rated devices are specified and properly installed. The best TVSS in the world will be ineffective if it is not connected properly.
Despite the best technology, there can still be challenges with an NFPA 780-based system, particularly when the system is improperly or only partially installed. For example, if the air terminal is installed lower than an adjacent antenna, it will not protect the antenna; in that case, the antenna cable carries the lightning current. Also, if the down conductor is connected to the bonding system rather than directly to a dedicated grounding terminal (ground plate), the lightning strike can energize the entire bonding system before discharging into the water. Another common mistake is to secure the lightning down conductor to other wiring. The high current from a strike through the down conductor can result in voltage surges in these adjacent wires, leading to additional damage in equipment that would otherwise be completely unaffected by the lightning strike.
The recent revolution in marine electronics demands an evolution of our thinking on marine lightning-protection; equipment protection should be an important aspect of any modern lightning protection system. The knowledge and resources to safely transform this change in thinking into reality are readily available, both from the NFPA and industries also at risk from lightning. However, there are unique challenges on pleasure craft that are not addressed by others. These must be solved by sharing the experiences of lightning-protection systems and their effectiveness across the industry.