|Why boats sink underway
Any boat has the potential to sink underway for the same reasons that it could sink at the dock--a hose slips off, a packing gland leaks, etc. Many boats sink because of leaks at thru-hulls, outdrive boots, or the raw water cooling system, all of which are routinely implicated when boats sink at
There are also many other reasons that boats sink underway, however, which have nothing to do with loose hose clamps or broken fittings. Boats underway can strike floating debris or stray onto a rocky shoal (“Navigation error”). There are careless skippers who forget to install drain plugs. Many boats sink after coming down hard off of waves and splitting open.
Once a boat starts to sink, it will gain momentum as it settles into the water. If a boat has a two-inch hole that is a foot below the waterline, for example, over 78 gallons of water will pour into the boat per minute. When the same hole is three feet below the surface, the flow of water increases to 136 gallons per minute. Keep in mind also, that other
thru-hulls that had been above the waterline will be underwater. If any of these fittings are cracked or missing, the
flow of water into the boat will accelerate further.
- Low Transoms - The single most critical reason boats are flooded on open water has to do with
transom height. Most boats that are swamped are outboard powered, with engine
cut-outs that are often only inches above the waves. Motor wells are supposed
to be the second line of defense when a wave comes over an outboard's transom
but, in some cases, the well is too low, too shallow, and/ or not sealed
adequately to the cockpit. Scuppers in the motor well and cockpit may also be
slow to drain, especially if they re clogged. And whenever water lingers in
the well or cockpit, the chances of another wave coming aboard increases. So
too is the risk of being swamped.
Aside from transom height, the other contributing factor when a boat is swamped is typically weight
distribution-- too many people at the stern together with scuba tanks, large
coolers, bait wells, etc. that reduces buoyancy aft. In most cases, swamping
occurs when the boats are stopped or idling.
Prevention: Especially on outboards with low cut outs, be conscious of weight distribution.
Avoid storing scuba tanks, heavy coolers, etc. near the transom At slow speeds,
keep the boat moving toward the waves. Don't ever anchor from the stern!
Most scuppers are slow to drain anyway, but when they're plugged up with leaves and other boat-gunk the
water can linger in cockpits and motor wells a dangerously long time. Use a
dockside hose with
a power spray nozzle to flush out debris.
- Cooling System Leaks - A 300-hp engine pumps approximately 30 gallons of water through the cooling system every minute. Depending on which fitting lets go, you could find yourself with the water pouring into the bilge at the same time the engine overheats, which means you're liable to be greeted by clouds of hot steam when you open the engine hatch.
Which fittings are most vulnerable? Any fitting
that is loose or corroded can let go. In one case
a cooling water pump hadn't been adequately tightened. On other boats, hoses slipped off, a
raw water heat exchanger burst (end cap), and a plastic muffler
split open when the engine backfired.
Prevention: All of the fittings in the cooling system should be inspected periodically for
loose connections and brittle or split hoses. Typically,
a break in the cooling
system will cause the engine to overheat before much water has been pumped
overboard. The hatch is opened, the problem is discovered, and the boat can
usually be saved.
The exception is a break in the exhaust or muffler. Backfiring
can blow a hole in a plastic muffler, corrosion can eat a hole in a metal
exhaust hoses can split and the engine will continue to pump water--a
lot of water--aboard.
- Striking an object - Submerged or partially submerged boards, logs, etc., are typically swept
into rivers and bays after large rain storms and have been responsible for
damaging and even sinking many boats.
Prevention: Slow down whenever you see floating debris. For every log visible on top of the
water, there is likely to be two that are bobbing just below the surface. If you
do strike something, indicated by an ominous "klunk" somewhere on the hull, open
the engine hatch immediately and make sure the boat isn't taking on water.